By John J. McCarthy
This ebook describes Optimality concept from the head down, explaining and exploring the imperative premises of OT and the implications that stick with from them. Examples are drawn from phonology, morphology, and syntax, however the emphasis all through is at the conception instead of the examples, on figuring out what's certain approximately OT and on equipping readers to use it, expand it, and critique it of their personal components of curiosity. The book's assurance extends to paintings on first- and second-language acquisition, phonetics and sensible phonology, computational linguistics, ancient linguistics, and sociolinguistics. Chapters finish with wide feedback for additional interpreting, categorized via subject, and are supplemented by means of an immense bibliography (over 800 items).
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Extra resources for A Thematic Guide to Optimality Theory
3 Constraint Interaction 29 (15) Cancellation/Domination Lemma (C/D Lemma) (paraphrased) Suppose two candidates A and B do not incur identical sets of violationmarks. Then A is more harmonic than B iff every uncanceled mark incurred by A is dominated by an uncanceled mark incurred by B. For A to beat B, every constraint favoring B over A must be dominated by some constraint favoring A over B. That's it. 1 how mark cancellation works. In a tableau that compares exactly two candidates, shared violation-marks can be safely deleted, since they make no contribution to the comparison.
1), but the formal constraint and the typological observation are two different things. This terminological ambiguity can be a source of considerable confusion. I once received the following advice from an anonymous referee for a prominent journal: My first comment addresses the discussion of segmental markedness: the primary evidence for markedness is implicational statements of the form: "If language L has structure A, it also has structure B". . In the absence of such implicational relations between A and B, there is no consensus on what should count as marked and why.
Another strategy is to seek confirmation for transitive rankings from direct arguments. If ranking arguments for [A » Bj and |B » C] have already been established, it is wise to look for an input-candidate pair that brings A and C into direct conflict. Unwelcome proof of [C » Aj would call the whole analysis into question. Failure to take this necessary step "invites theoretical disaster, public embarrassment, and unintended enrichment of other people's careers" (McCarthy and Prince 1993b: 12).
A Thematic Guide to Optimality Theory by John J. McCarthy